Thursday, January 27, 2005
Protocol of the Wannsee Conference, Jan. 20 1942 - Classified Secret of Reich
(which took place here)
30 specimens - Exemplar n°16
I - on January 20, 1942 in Berlin, Grosser Wannsee n° 56-58, took place a conference on the final solution of the Jewish question, to which took share:
Gauleiter Dr. Meyer Ministry for Territory occupied
of East and director of office of Reich Dr. Leibbrandt
Secretary of State Dr. Stuckart
Ministry for Interior
Secretary of State Neumann
Delegate with Plan of four year
Secretary of State Dr. Freisler
Ministry for Justice
Secretary of State Dr. Bühler
Office of Governor general
Under-Secretary of State Luther
Ministry for Foreign Affairs
Oberführer SS Klopfer
Chancellery of party
Directing ministerial Kritzinger
Chancellery of Reich
Gruppenführer SS Hofmann Office central of race and of establishment
Gruppenführer SS Müller
Obersturmbannführer SS Eichmann
Office central of safety of Reich
Oberführer SS Dr. Schöngarth
Organizes safety and Ordering SD of the police force of safety
and the SD for the general Government
Sturmbannführer SS Dr. Lange
Organizes safety and SD Commander of the police force of safety
and SD for the district of Latvia, representing the commander of the
police force of safety and the SD of the police station of Reich for
the areas of the East
II - The head of the police force of safety and the SD, Obergruppenführer SS Heydrich, made share in opening of the mission which was entrusted to him by the Marshal of Reich for the preparation of the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe, and indicated that the objective of this meeting was to clarify the basic problems. The wish of the Marshal of Reich to see itself presenting a project of organization, of unfolding and material conditions from the point of view of the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe, required as a preliminary a harmonization of all the central authorities directly concerned with these questions, from the point of view of a parallel control of the orientation of the actions.
The responsibility for the treatment of the final solution of the Jewish question raises, without consideration of the geographical borders, Reichsführer SS and head of the German police force (head of the police force of safety and the SD).
The head of the police force of safety and the SD then gave a short retrospective of the combat carried out hitherto against this adversary. Strong times were:
a) The repression of the Jews out of the territory of establishment of the German people,
b) The repression of the Jews out of the vital space of the German people.
To make these efforts, the only solution then possible was temporarily to reinforce and plan the acceleration of the emigration of the Jews out of the territories of Reich.
On order of the Marshal of Reich, a central direction of Reich for the emigration of the Jews was created in January 1939, and its direction entrusted to the head of the police force of safety and the SD. It had the specific roles:
a) to take the required measures to prepare a reinforced emigration of the Jews,
b) to direct flows of emigration,
c) to accelerate with individually the application of the procedures of emigration. The objective was to clean Jews German vital space in all legality.
All the services were conscious of the difficulties caused by such a precipitation of the emigration. It was well initially necessary to put up with it, for lack of any other solution.
Thereafter, the tasks relating to the emigration were not only any more one German problem, but also a problem of which the authorities of the immigration, countries of destination possibly, had to be occupied. Financial difficulties, as the rise, by the various foreign governments, of the taxes of entry and unloading, but also the lack of place on the boats, the reinforcement growing of the limitations, even prohibitions of immigration, complicated the efforts of emigration enormously. In spite of these difficulties, 537 000 Jews were brought to emigrate between the seizure of power and October 31, 1941, of which:
- Since January 30, 1933, approximately 360 000 of Reich,
- Since March 15, 1938, approximately 147 000 of the East’s Steps
- Since March 15, 1939, approximately 30 000 of the protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia. The emigration was financed by the Jews, even by their political organizations. To prevent that the proletarian Jews remain, it was made so that the fortunate Jews finance the departure of the others; a taking away, a tax with the emigration fixed according to fortune, was used to cover the expenses of the emigration of the poor Jews.
In addition to the re-entries in Reichsmark, currencies were required for the payment of the taxes of entry and unloading. To preserve here the funds German of currencies, the international Jewish financial institutions were called, by the intermediary of the Jewish organizations of the interior, to provide for covering with the corresponding sums in currencies. On the whole, until October 30, 1941, the foreign Jews thus provided, by way of donation, 9 500 000 dollars.
Since, Reichsführer SS, head of the German police force, prohibited 1' emigration of the Jews, because of the dangers of the emigration in times of war, and consideration of the new possibilities in the east.
III - From now on, in the place of the emigration, the new solution with the preliminary downstream of Führer, is the evacuation of the Jews towards the east. These actions are however to regard only as transitory solutions, but which will enable us to acquire practical experiments which will be very invaluable for the final solution to come from the Jewish question. During the final solution of the Jewish question in Europe, will be to take into account approximately 11 million Jews, divided as follows in the various countries:
the number of the Jews indicated in the various foreign countries is however that of the religious Jews. the definition of the Jews according to racial criteria's missing partially in these countries. The treatment of the problem will run up in each country against certain difficulties due to the attitude and the state of mind of the populations, in particular in Hungary and Romania. In Romania for example, a Jew can, today still, to buy papers attesting a foreign nationality officially.
In the USSR, the influence of the Jews on all the territories is well-known. Five million Jews approximately live in the European part, hardly 250.000 in the Asian part.
The distribution by profession of the Jews of the European part of the USSR is approximately the following one:
Farmers 9.1 %
Civil servants 23,4%
Private Sector (medicine, press, theatre, etc.) 32,7 %
During the final solution, the Jews of the East will have to be mobilized for work with the desired framing. In large columns of workers, separated by sex, the Jews suited to work will be brought to build roads in these territories. What undoubtedly will allow a substantial natural reduction in their number.
To finish, it will be necessary to apply a treatment appropriate to the totality of those which will remain because they will be obviously the most resistant elements, since resulting from a natural selection, and which would be likely to be the germ of a new Jewish stock, for little that one leaves them in freedom (see the experiment of the history).
During the practical execution of the final solution, Europe will have passed to the fine comb of West Is the operation will begin on the territory from Reich, including protectorates of Bohemia and Moravia, because of the situation of housing and specificity socio-policy of Reich.
The evacuated Jews will pass from access convoy by convoy, by ghettos of transit, and from there will be transported more to far in the East.
Obergruppenführer SS Heydrich continued by specifying that one of the significant conditions for the good walk of the evacuation of the Jews was to fix exactly the group of the people concerned.
It is not envisaged to evacuate in the East the Jews of more than 65 years, but to transfer them in a ghetto from old men - probably to Theresienstadt. In addition to this age bracket - among the 280 000 Jews residing in Germany and Austria at October 31, 1941, approximately 30 % have more than 65 years -, the invalid large Jews of war and those which carry a military decoration (EK I) there will be accommodated.
This suitable solution will make it possible to cross short to the many foreseeable interventions. The beginning of the greatest operations of evacuation will depend largely on the revolution of the military situation. With regard to the treatment of the final solution in the occupied European territories or under influence, it was proposed that the persons in charge concerned for the Ministry for Foreign Affairs act in concert with the qualified head of section of the police force of safety and the SD.
The business is not more difficult in Slovaquia and Croatia, since the questions essential to regulate from this point of view already found a solution. In Romania, the government named responsible for mission for the Jewish questions. To settle the question in Hungary, it is necessary as fast as possible to force on the government an adviser for the Jewish questions.
Because of the reception reserved for the preparations of payment of the problem in Italy, Obergruppenführer SS Heydrich estimated that it was advisable, in this business, to establish a contact with the head of the police force.
In occupied and non-occupied France, the census of the Jews for the evacuation will be carried out, according to any probability, without much difficulty.
On this subject, the under-secretary of State Luther pointed out that the thorough treatment of the problem would encounter difficulties in some countries, like the States of north, and consequently, it was recommended, for the moment, to leave these countries outstanding.
If one considers the restricted number of Jews concerned, this setting outstanding does not represent a significant obstacle.
On the other hand, the Ministry does not envisage great difficulties for the south-east of Europe. Gruppenführer SS Hofmann plans to send in Hungary an expert of the central office of the races and establishment to take part in the general orientation, if as regards head of the police force of safety and SD one attacks this business over there. It was decided to temporarily detach this expert of the central office of the races and the establishment: it should not be itself active, but appear officially as assistant near the attaché of the police force.
IV - During the implementation of the projects for the final solution, the laws of Nuremberg must to some extent form the base of it, but the condition of a liquidation of the problem without leaving of trace also passes by the resolution of the questions relating to the mixed marriages and Mischling.
The head of the police force of safety and the SD continued the theoretical discussion, starting from a mail of the head of the chancellery of Reich, on the following points:
1) Treatment of Mischling of the 1st degree
In comparison with the final solution of the Jewish question, Mischling of the 1st degree are equivalent to the Jews.
Make exception to this treatment:
a)Mischling of the 1st degree has married to Germans of blood and having children (Mischling of the 2nd degree) resulting this marriage. These Mischling of the 2nd degree are for 1' essential equal to the Germans.
b) Mischling of the 1st degree on which the highest authorities of the party and the State hitherto conferred a situation exception in tone the fields.
Each particular case must be controlled, and it is not excluded that the decision is unfavourable, even for these Mischling.
The conditions so that the exception is granted must always concern the fundamental merits of Mischling in question (and not of the merits of the German blood parents).
Any Mischling of the 1st degree profiting from the exception as regards evacuation will have to be sterilized, to prevent any descent, and definitively to eliminate the problem from the interbreeding. Will be carried out to sterilization on the basis of voluntariate. But the maintenance on the territory of Reich is subjected to this condition. Sterilized Mischling will be released thereafter from all the restrictive provisions to which it was subjected hitherto.
2) Treatment of Mischling of the 2nd degree
Mischling of the 2nd degree are basically related to the Germans of blood, except for the following cases, for which Mischling of the 2nd degree are placed on a plan of equality with the Jews:
a) Mischling of the 2nd degree resulting from a bastard union (couple of Mischling).
b) Particularly unfavourable racial appearance for Mischling of the 2nd degree, placing it by its appearance on the side of the Jews.
c) Police or political Reports/ratios particularly bad concerning Mischling of the 2nd degree making appear that it feels and behaves like a Jew. But it will not be made exception, even in such cases, if Mischling of the 2nd degree is married with a German of blood.
3) Marriages between Jews and Germans of blood It should be decided with individually if the Jewish spouse must be evacuated or if it is transferred towards a ghetto from old men, in consideration of the consequences of such a measurement on the German relationship of this mixed couple.
4) Marriages between Mischling of the 1st degree and Germans of blood
a) Without child If no child comes from the marriage, Mischling of the 1st degree will be evacuated, possibly transferred in a ghetto from old men (even treatment that for the marriages between Juifs and Germans of blood, at the point 3).
b) With children If children (themselves Mischling of the 2nd degree) come from the marriage, and if they are placed on a plan of equality with the Jews, they will be evacuated with Mischling of the 1st degree, or will be transferred in a ghetto. Insofar as these children are in the same plan as the Germans (normal cases), they profit from the exception to the evacuation, just as their Mischling relative of 1st degree.
5) Marriages between two Mischling of the 1st degree or Mischling of the 1st degree and Jew. In the case of these marriages, each member (including the children) is treated like Jew and thus evacuated, even transferred in a ghetto from old men.
6) Marriages between Mischling of the 1st degree and Mischling of the 2nd degree
Without consideration of the existence or not of children, the two joint ones will be evacuated or transferred in a ghetto from old men, insofar as possible children present on the racial level, in general, of stronger traces of Jewish blood than Mischling of the 2nd degree.
Gruppenführer SS Hofmann expressed the opinion that it was necessary to use largely of sterilization, more especially as Mischling, placed in front of the choice between evacuation and sterilization, will be subjected rather to sterilization.
The Dr. Stuckart, Secretary of State, made the report that the implementation of the solutions which have been just expressed for the liquidation of the questions relating to the mixed marriages and Mischling would involve, in the forms envisaged, an immense quantity of administrative tasks. To take account of the biological data present in all the cases, the Secretary of State Dr. Stuckart, proposed moreover to adopt obligatory sterilization.
For simp1ify the problem of the mixed marriages, it would be necessary to think of provisions by which the legislator would say: "these marriages are dissolved"
On the question of the consequences of the evacuation of the Jews about the economic life, the Secretary of State Neumann explained why the Jews employed in the essential companies in times of war could not be evacuated as long as they would not be replaced.
Obergruppenführer SS Heydrich indicated that these Jews would not be evacuated within the framework of the directives which it had approved for the execution of the actions of evacuation currently in hand.
The Dr. Bühler, Secretary of State, noticed that one would greet, with the general Government, the fact of beginning the final solution in the general government, because the problem of transport would not add to it an additional difficulty, and that missions of mobilization for work would not come to block the course of the action there. It would be necessary to as quickly move away as possible the Jews from the territories of the general Government, because the Jew, carrying epidemic, represented a particular danger there lies eminent, and brought moreover, by his continuous traffics, the disorder in the economic structure of the country. On the 2 million and half of Jews concerned, the majority were in addition inapt for work.
The Dr. Bühler, Secretary of State, continued by noting that the solution of the Jewish question in the general Government came under the responsibility of the head of the police force of safety and the SD, and that its efforts were to be supported by the authorities of the general Government. It had one wish: that the Jewish question is settled about this territory as quickly as possible.
In conclusion, the various resolutions were discussed, and it came out from it, as well as regards Dr. Meyer, Gauleiter, as of that of the Secretary of State, Dr. Bühler, as one was of the opinion that it was necessary to carry out immediately, in the territories in question, certain preliminary works with the course of the final solution, while however avoiding causing the concern of the population. By putting a term at the meeting, the head of the police force of safety and SD asked the participants to grant to him all their support in the execution of the decided tasks.
Translated by Harald at Harald Tribute
Full details of this nightmare event here.